Wednesday, January 23, 2008



Many authors have defined about leadership in various ways. But this article focuses about the ways and means by which any lay man can cultivate and inculcate this much sought after trait. It clearly differentiated between talent and skill and it concluded at the end that leadership is a skill that can be cultivated by a common man. It highlighted about the qualities needed in any leader. It laid emphasis between a manager and a leader. It has come out with novel strategies and secrets and tools and techniques by which an ordinary person can become an extraordinary person. This article is highly useful for CEOs and aspiring leaders in the corporate world.

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“If your actions inspire others to dream more, learn more, do more and become more, you are a leader”, John Quincy Adam.


“Research on leadership indicates that 50 – 75 per cent of organizations are currently managed by people sorely lacking in leadership competence. They are hired or promoted based on technical competence, business knowledge and politics not on leadership skill”.

Before explaining in detail about leadership it is worthwhile to identify whether it is a skill or a talent. If it is a talent then leadership is an inborn quality as talents are innate by nature. If it is a skill, then it can be acquired by voracious reading, learning, continuous practice, by training and by experience. If it is a talent then the leaders are born if it is a skill then the leaders are made.

Leadership is more of an action rather than by preaching. Leadership is the ability to lead from the front despite many successive setbacks with a passion and with a conviction of a great vision. It is also taking a sense of responsibility, setting as a role model with qualities like courage, commitment and conviction. Leadership is also a way of calling ‘we’ not ‘I’ because no leader is successful as an individual. Whenever there is a success the leader ascribes it to his team behind and in case of a failure, he owns the sole responsibility. There are many dimensions and definitions to the concept of leadership. In this context, it is pertinent and relevant to classify the types of leadership.


Traditionally there are three types of leadership - Dictatorial or Autocratic leadership, Democratic or Participative leadership and Delegative or Free reign leadership. In the case of the autocratic leadership, the leader takes decisions of his own based on his gut feeling and intuition and orders the execution of his instructions. And the followers have to accept and execute whether they like the same or not. There are no consultations or discussions with subordinates in this style. And in the case of any debacle he is held solely responsible for his actions and instructions. That is the reason it is also called as dictatorial style and it is unique in military organizations.

In democratic leadership, the leader consults with his subordinates on various occasions and takes them into confidence. A consensus is generated after weighing the pros and cons of the matter. Entire team is held responsible either for success or failure of the decision making. Since many key heads are involved in decision making it is called as democratic type of leadership.

Thirdly, in the delegative style of leadership, the decision making is delegated by the leader to his subordinates. The second in command takes the decision and executes. Even if there is any failure, the leader is held responsible as he delegated the decision making power to his lieutenant. It is also known as free reign leadership.

All leaders make use of all the three styles and types as per the situation. It is not prudent to declare that a specific style is wrong.


First and foremost quality of any leader is to have passion to lead the people and the passion to serve the people. Passion is nothing but a burning desire to contribute his best for the people without expecting any returns. Only when he is passionate he can ignite passion amongst his followers.

He should have a vision and a common goal or objective for which people should have interest to come forward to realize the goals and objectives. Only when the vision is strong then the mission can be strong. He knows ‘where to go’ and he directs his followers continuously by showing ‘how to go’.

He should be a self-motivator and only self motivators become self starters. He should be filled with strong convictions and should be highly motivated so that he can maintain higher levels of energy amongst his followers.

Zig Zigler Zig said, 97 per cent people live in comfort zone and only 3 per cent of the people live in effective zone. The leaders always live in the effective zone and they get excited by being always in effective zone. They love to face challenges continuously. They continue shifting from one orbit to another at ease.

Leaders always look for excellence not for perfection. They always look at the things positively and are firm optimists.

They experiment a lot and make many mistakes and learn a lot from the same and for them every big fall is a big rise. They rise like phoenix. Robert Francis Kennedy rightly quoted, “Only those who dare to fail greatly can ever achieve greatly”.

They are excellent networkers and thrive on network. Even if they fall they rise because of their strong network. And the network helps either because he has helped them in the past with altruism or because their network is fascinated with his altruistic and leadership style.

They are men of integrity and strong character. They are very firm in their commitments and convictions. They have higher tolerance levels and have a positive bent of mind towards other people’s sentiments and cultures.

They maintain stoic silence and display mental and emotional stability even in extreme provocations or failures. They are excellent listeners and listen to different people with different dimensions and yet maintain independent thinking in arriving at solutions.

Good leaders always talk of positive things and make positive statements like ‘you can do it’, ‘it is possible’, ‘you will achieve big’ and so on. And they never make negative remarks like ‘it is impossible’, ‘it is doubtful’, ‘you can never improve’ etc.,

They are open to change and they know very well that change is always constant. They become the champions of change and are very effective change masters.

For them, success is not outsmarting others but setting their own goals and touching their upper limits. Once they reach their upper limits they raise the bar automatically and again touch their upper limits.

They never beat around the bush and always stay focused. Neither can they be neither distracted nor diverted from their cherished goals and objectives. They know how to hit the bulls’ eye.

They always radiate positive energy and are expert at visualizing opportunities from threats. They know how to capitalize on their strengths, how to overcome from their weaknesses, manage both the internal and external threats effectively and effectively and last but not the least they are good at spotting the opportunities.

They strongly believe in others and trust their subordinates or followers. As trust begets trust, the leader in turn is trusted by his followers.

They always look at the big picture. If a lay man thinks about the repercussions, implications and complications of a decision making just after a step. The leader thinks, imagines the same, number of stages and steps ahead based on his abilities in problem solving and also because of his experience.

All great leaders are strong at communication skills. They mesmerize their followers with their oratorical skills and abilities and they continuously ignite and excite their followers to reach their goals.

”Leadership and learning are indispensable to each other”, quoted John F. Kennedy. They learn and grow continuously. They regularly update their skills and abilities. Most of the great leaders are great readers. Apart from providing motivation and inspiration books also provide great ideas.

Leaders create their own set of advisers and consult them whenever they are confronted with complicated situations. Their team of trusted advisors provides various comments and after having brainstorming discussions the right solution is arrived and the leaders adopt the same.

They find out the unexplored and unexploited areas and they build up mindset, skills set, tools set so as to excel in those areas and people follow them as they are specialist in those area. They rarely follow the road and rather they make a road for their followers and leave a mark behind. In this context, it is apt to quote, “Don’t follow where path may lead. Go instead where there is no path and leave a trail”.

Neither are they dominant nor submissive and are flexible and are assertive in their dealings. They respect people and love people and they do not hesitate to go extra mile to please their people.

Leaders are socially adept and have social intelligence and they know the value of people and value of relations. John C.Maxwell rightly quoted, “The most important single ingredient in the formula of success is knowing how to get along with people. People don’t care how much you know, until they know how much you care”.

Leaders are sound at judgment. They know the strengths and weaknesses of their subordinates and utilize them according to their skills and abilities so as to meet the desired goals and objectives. They are smart at converting ordinary people as extraordinary people.

They know how to balance their lives and good at leading balanced life. They have self discipline and do the things proactively without prompting of others. They move like a clock in a systematic and organized manner and are competent time managers.

Leaders know how to motivate their followers and they know the knack of uncorking and unlocking the hidden potential amongst the people. It is aptly said, “A leader is someone who helps others do and become more than they ever thought possible. Leadership is about unlocking potential, whether individual potential or that of a group, company, or organization. It is not about telling people what to do, but inspiring them to see what they are capable of, then, helping them get there”.

Good leaders are effective motivators and they understand the gravity of the situation and don the hat as per the situation and give their best to provide win-win situation for all without hurting anybody. They are excellent in persuasive skills, goal setting skills and soft skills.


Both are closely related although there are a few basic differences.
Peter F.Drucker said, “Management is doing things right, leadership is doing the right things”. It clearly demarcates the difference by saying that management deals with how efficiently the work is done and leadership deals with how effectively the work is done. Management insists on performance where as leadership talks about productivity.

While leadership focuses more on vision the management lays stress on mission. While the leaders talk of where to reach the goals, the managers talk of how to reach. The leader derives power the manager acts as per the authority. When the manager provides the direction the leader sets the pace and speed. The manager always follow the road where as it is the leader who creates road. The manager is involved in execution while the leader is involved in delegation. It is the leader who is always the high risk taker where as the manager has limited risk to take.

The manager always does the different things where as the leader does the things differently with his unconventional attitude. The manager is with in the hierarchy where as the leader is the creator of the hierarchy. Ultimately to put it in a nut shell, if the manager puts efforts in climbing the ladder and it the role of the leader to see that the ladder is on the right side of the wall. To sum it up in the words of Stephen R.Covey, “Management is efficiency in climbing the ladder of success; leadership determines whether the ladder is leaning against the right wall”.

Fed Express Corporation, the world’s largest express transportation company believes in nurturing the leadership skills of its employees. Any one aspiring to become a leader has to undergo LEAP (Leadership Evaluation and Assessment Process) test. All organizations are laying emphasis on leadership development programs and many companies are conducting workshops on Leadership in order to enhance productivity and performance in this cut throat competitive world.


• Take someone you love the most and the one who is successful and when you remember him you get ignited spontaneously as your role model and learn to behave like a leader. Of course, you make mistakes and people have reached to the level of leadership after learning a lot from their mistakes.
• Possess passion to become a leader because leadership is more of a state of mind than that of an action and again more of an action than that of theory. Participate in group activities and slowly you develop the skills. Whenever there is an opportunity to organize group activities like functions, seminars, meetings take proactive posture. Involvement is essential.
• Visualize yourself as a successful leader standing on the top of the world with so many followers around you applauding you. This visualization will motivate you to strive towards building leadership qualities.
• Read number of motivational books, biographies and autobiographies of great leaders across the world, you learn new ideas and concepts and try to put the same which were untried and unexplored.
• Have clarity of mind and approach because it is leader who should first understand the way, should go the same way thereby paving the path for his followers.
• Always cultivate and inculcate the in built attitude like what best can you give to people not what can you get from the people.
• Never shy away from shouldering responsibilities. Given the opportunity, shoulder the responsibilities and you can learn many lessons out of it.
• You need to display constant levels of energy and enthusiasm and must take initiative in all your endeavors.
• Knowing in depth about your field or areas of study will provide you the arms and ammunition like competence; confidence and courage which over a period of time make you rise from the rest. Having knowledge in your chosen area along with integrity will bring effective results as both are coupled. Failure to bring synergy between these two will prove to be a great disaster. In this context, Samuel Johnson aptly said, “Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless. And knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful”.
• M.K.Gandhi became a Mahatma Gandhi only by involving himself in the freedom movement and by moving along with common people and he motivated the people to participate in the freedom movement. He won success because he practiced what he preached. He was a Karma yogi. You have to be part of the people in order to motivate, inspire and provide a right kind of direction.
• You need to display a lot of endurance because things will not go as per your plans. At times, problems crop up due to your internal forces and factors which can be manageable up to certain extent and the problems do arise due to external forces and factors and endurance is an imperative in this context.
• Develop emotional intelligence as this trait will help you get along with people and develop social adjustment. Enhance edge and this will toughen you mentally very strong. And when the going gets touch, the tough gets going. Develop perseverance and move like a marathoner because you know where you are going and why you are going.
• Conduct SWOT (Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats) Analysis. It is a wonderful tool and by this you can analyze your strengths and weaknesses which will help you to maximize your strengths and minimizes your weaknesses. Manage the most of your time in capitalizing your strengths and less of your time in converting your weaknesses into strengths and the least of your time in delegating the weaknesses that can not be overcome to your subordinates.
• Whenever you are wedded with success share the same and pass on to your team members and followers. No leader attained success by himself independently. Whenever success comes it comes purely because of collective efforts, team efforts and all the people involved in the movement.
• Last but not the least never misuse your authority for your personal ends or to settle your scores with your rivals. Never let down the trust and confidence of your followers. So far in the history of mankind, no followers let down their leaders but it is only a few leaders who let down their followers.


Leadership is a skill not a talent which can be acquired by reading, learning, training, continuous practice and experience. Every one should know that leaders are not born but are made due to external environment and circumstances. The road to leadership is not an easy but an uphill and an Herculean task. Anybody can become a leader but everybody can not become a leader.. The leaders lead their lives with lot of struggles and sacrifices and they live larger than life even after their death because they live more in the hearts of the people rather than in the minds of the people.


More than half of all CEOs of all Fortune 500 companies had an average academic educational background. The boss of Microsoft, Mr. Bill Gates is a college drop out and also the boss of Dell Corp, Mr. Michael Dell is also a college drop out. Half of all millionaire entrepreneurs never finished their college. But what made all of them to tick as leaders? The answer is a simple 7 letter word, - PASSION. It is the first and last eligibility to attain the status of a 6 letter word – LEADER.


Sunday, January 13, 2008



Indian management education system, no doubt, survived and succeeded in establishing its wings spread across all sectors in India. Yet there are number of grey areas to be addressed. We produce quantitative management graduates but not qualitative. It is a matter of great regret to note. The article highlights the strengths and weaknesses of the present management education. It focuses on ‘what they do not teach in B schools?’ in detail because the author has rich experience in this field being a visiting faculty for ICFAI University as he takes classes for management graduates (MBA). And also he is a permanent faculty in an engineering college and he regularly takes classes for engineering graduates (B.Tech). He found out various tools and techniques to improve upon the present method of management education based on his 25 years of previous work experience that includes business experience apart from his multiple academic qualifications in management and other diversified fields. At the end, there is a clear-cut message to bring out the best leaders and gurus in management from India across the world.


India has around 1400 Business schools accredited by All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) and produces management graduates seven times than that of United Kingdom. But we could not produce the best business leaders and managers across the world from our B Schools. We often glorify frequently about our quantity of management education but not about the quality. Presently Harvard University stands first in the top US list of B schools and INSEAD stands first in the non-US list of B schools in the world. What is the official ranking of Indian management institutions across the world? Unfortunately none of our B schools stands in the top 100 list. What ails our B schools? It is high time we introspected honestly and thoroughly.


Every year nearly two lakh MBA aspirants take part in Common Admission Test (CAT). Right now there are 1.25 lakh full time students and one-lakh distance education students pursuing MBA. What makes them to be crazy after MBA tag? Is it because it offers wider opportunities to grow professionally or to get fat pays and perks? It is, in fact, a debatable issue. Especially after the opening up of Indian economy in early nineties, many private players jumped into the bandwagon of creating many B schools with money spinning attitude. It is very difficult to predict how many institutions will survive and succeed and how many will go into the dustbins of history. The institutions are in a great hurry to create managers in quantity but not quality.

Students are also, in general, find it fancy to go for such courses so as to have firm foothold in their career. Statistics reveal that IIM-A selects one out of 400 aspirants as against the one in 20 aspirants of US B schools. Newspapers and magazines also come out with screaming headlines about the prestigious degree. Such headlines make the students crazier after MBA degree.

The MBA degree has its brainchild of American educational system and in early fifties, Indian Institute of Management (IIMs) has been established in India to provide management education. Ever since, IIMs have become the official, authoritative and commendable institutions in India. Although it is nearly more than half a century, we could not produce Indian management gurus across the globe and it is a matter of great regret to note. The business education system is American in content and context and also by nature thus resulting in creating critical gaps in the system.


The present trend indicates that there is more number of people of technical background (B.E and B.Tech) entering B schools. The MBA enhances career prospects for engineering graduates. Engineers, by qualification, are sound technically and can excel as technical leaders. But having an MBA becomes another extra lifeline to scale the corporate ladder quickly. The combination of technical and managerial skills will prove handy and make the people as an effective business leaders and managers. It is because of these reasons the engineering graduates need to pass in managerial subjects to groom them as effective managers.


In India, there is a strong need to encourage students of Arts, Commerce, Science and Computers to go for MBA courses. And also inclusion of management subjects or topics or concepts in these areas will enhance their exposure to the field of management so that they can gradually develop an aptitude for management. When these non-professional degree holders go for placement they find fully equipped to face the day to day challenges at their work place. In fact, the strength of non-technical graduates outnumbers technical graduates. As a result, there will be steady and strong growth of appetite for MBA qualification. Ultimately we can expect more number of managers from all fields of study.


Henry Mintzberg is one of the strongest critics of MBA degrees. He found out many defects in the present management education system. The present system does not encourage entrepreneurial skills and abilities. It does not lay stress on ethical part of education. It is not able to inculcate or cultivate industry or sector specific skills. There are set of skills required for each sector, segment and industry. The inability to focus on the same became a major area of weakness. Real industrial problems are neither thought nor taught. It is not able to cater to Indian type of education and on the contrary, it began to believe in aping American method of education, which at times found to be highly irrelevant and superfluous. It does not focus on Total Productive Maintenance (TQM) where teams are forged and motivated to contribute their best without any egoistic considerations. It is devoid of multicultural experience. It is highly commercialized and commoditised. It is like a shop where goods and services are offered in exchange for money. Of course, no qualifications can be provided without money, as it is essential to ensure circulation of the entire organizational set up effectively. The degree of commercialization and commoditisation has become rampant. It is filled with antiquated, outdated and condemned pedagogic and teaching skills and needs to be overhauled thoroughly and immediately.


The present management education survived for nearly five decades in India and struggling to expand beyond national and geographical boundaries. With the boon of rapid changing technology and communication, the educational system is undergoing drastic changes although the pace is slow. The students in B schools develop the ability to network and grow fast. The alumni links serve as strong launching pad.


B schools teach the theoretical concepts and aspects, which will help the people to get tuned with the corporate terminology right from the school itself and also the meanings of the related concepts. The tools and techniques, which were taught in school, help them equip to take over the managerial/leadership roles in the corporate world. In fact B schools’ objective is to groom the business leaders for tomorrow.

It is always an well-admitted fact that there is vast chasm between theory and percept. The B school product when he finds himself in the hot seat in the industry, he finds himself suffocated as he finds vast gap in his dreams and realities. He needs to get his hands dirty in the real organizations, which he might have fantasized, from a totally different perspective.

The ability to deal with the people can not be taught in B schools and even if it was taught, it is very difficult to implement, as there would be so many bottlenecks. B schools only teach how to do but the corporate world only, indeed, teaches the practical way of learning. It is like learning how to swim, i.e. whatever the student learnt such as tools and techniques by way of theoretical explanations in school, he can only learn when he gets into the deep waters of the corporate world.

Traits like diplomacy and tactness and emotional intelligence can be learnt only by practical experience. The books and B schools have certain limitations. The efficiency and efficacy can be learnt only by involving oneself in real like situation. However the case studies one might have come across by way of thorough reading in school, the real life is total different from fantasized reel life. In a nutshell, a person comes from reel life to real life.

The concepts like brainstorming, reverse brainstorming, lateral thinking, vertical thinking, out of the box thinking, emotional intelligence, change agents, mind mapping, morphological analysis, six thinking hats, synectics, Type A personality and Type B personality could be better be understood and felt in the real corporate life.

B schools equip tons of information, data, knowledge, and case studies, which can help to get tuned with the real problems in the organizations to some extent. But it can not be summed up altogether that they produce the best managers in the industry.

B schools do not teach entrepreneurial skills and risk taking abilities. They teach about soft skills and communication skills, which can best be experimented in the battleground of corporate life and can be perfected. If the tools of efficiency are taught in B schools, the tricks of effectiveness is learnt in corporate world.

B schools do not talk much about building relations. Whatever the little so taught becomes too little in the practical life. In real business, it is always the products or services, which speak in volumes to the customers initially and the subsequent transactions, depend on relationships to a greater extent. Ultimately it is the satisfied customer who turns again and gives business. Therefore, much of the business solely depends on building relationships, which is again missing in B schools. B schools do highlight on evolutionary approaches but not revolutionary. But the practical business mostly talks of revolutionary approaches.

To lay more stress, if ‘what B school teaches’ is one side of the coin then the other side of the coin is ‘what one learns in organizations’. And the coin will have complete value only when these two are clubbed together. The combination of two sides creates a complete corporate personality.


There is a strong need to lay stress on the Indian-industry oriented management education. This does not mean to do away with the American methodology of concepts and teachings. What is now needed is glocal approach i.e. the combination of global and local approach.

The visiting faculty usually teaches in more than one institution and teaches more than one subject. As a result their approach is short term oriented and less focussed. Where as the permanent faculty works under one roof in the same system and subjects resulting in staying highly focussed in his approach. These people tend to have long term orientation and it pays off heavily for the students.

There is vast chasm between the salaries of academic and non-academic professions. At the industries, pay and perks are heavy and the best brains are naturally going to non-academic line. This does not mean totally that those who work in academic profession do not posses brighter talents and skills. There may be a segment of brains that would like to work in academic line because of their taste for teaching. The vast gap between these two in terms of salaries needs to be narrowed down and addressed. Sometimes, the teaching faculty may work outside on part time basis to generate more income. This again contributes in less concentration in teaching.

Recruiting the faculty who possess diversified academic back ground, experience and expertise will bring quality of education as these people can combine their multiple skills learnt from academic field along with their industrial or business experience. Similarly industries must come forward to encourage the trainee management graduates to do project work in their organizations which will enhance competency and confidence.

The present management education refers to many case studies related to other countries. Although it is good to have a feel of the case studies of foreign land, there is an element of nativity lost in teaching. It is necessary to generate our own case studies and explain the concepts or topics with native examples for understanding and enhancing the qualitative education. It is like, when you in Rome do as Romans do, but not as Greece do. The need of the hour is to create glocal mindset in the minds of management graduates.

Indian B schools must evolve its own tools and techniques in teaching and tune its B schools as the battlegrounds to create global management gurus.


The Shah Rukh Khan’s starrer, ‘Chak De! India’ has been included as a case study in a management institute for showcasing leadership, motivation, human resource management and other excellent skills. There is a need to encourage such case studies, which can be well understood and practiced to make effective managers and leaders. Encourage reel like heroes like Amitabh Bachhan, Shah Rukh Khan and so on into real life heroes by participating once in a while in management education. They can narrate their own practical problems related to film industry which become the best case studies for the students thereby adding a touch of glamour and knowledge in management education.

Turn around heroes who are instrumental in making their companies profitable like Mr.R.Seshasayee, the Managing Director for Ashok Leyland, Mr. Krishnamurty of SAIL, and Mr.Laloo Prasad Yadav, the Union Railway Minister should be invited to provide guest lectures at B schools (Of course, Mr.Laloo Prasad did take part in such lectures). These people can come out with practical problems they faced while turning around their institutions. Like wise, the successful leaders and managers across various Indian industries, sectors and segments should be invited to management institutions who can become source of inspiration and motivation for the students. What is needed is the practical business education not ivory tower type of education. And the leaders need not to be MBAs. There are leaders who became corporate czars not because of MBA but because of their business acumen, dedication, discipline and determination.


AICTE has a pivotal role to play in streamlining and overhauling Indian management education system with many checks and balances. Late Dhirubhai H Ambani and Laxmi Niwas Mittal have become corporate legends not by doing MBA but by business acumen and right application of available resources. MBA helps in enriching the minds of the business managers and leaders. MBA does supplement and does not substitute business acumen. Sound academic background with strong business and industry insights along with stimulated and simulated case studies can bring out the best results in quality of management education in India.


The best business managers and leaders can be created only by a successful synthesis of academic theory and business practice or industrial experience. The business education should be based on practical or simulated and effective case studies. If the educational infrastructure is sound then one can expect a strong superstructure in future. Imagine an India with a population of a more than a billion can produce how much number of Jack Welchs’, Philip.Kotlers’ and Peter F Druckers’.



Andrew Carnegie said, “Team work is the ability to work together toward a common vision. The ability to direct individual accomplishments toward organizational objectives. It is the fuel that allows common people to attain uncommon results”.

Formation of homogeneous group out of heterogeneous for achieving organizational goals and objectives can be defined as team work. Working in teams is a fun and frolic. Team work touches upon our hidden talents. It is here people communicate more freely and work together in a team resulting in more efficient and effective results. It is nothing but synergy of strengths of diversified people. Every individual is blessed with unique qualities, abilities, talents and skills and when they work in teams with passion, we can expect unique results. Although numerically one plus one is two, but in team work it gives rise to more than two. It is here where people of diversified backgrounds and faculties come together to do their best forgetting their egos, differences of opinions, views and ideas so as to keep the objectives of the team paramount. Effective team work develops team spirit, flexibility, openness, adjustability and adaptability.

Characteristics of an Effective Team:

Basically a team must possess four elements such as purpose, duration, structure and membership. The leader or the manager must be very clear in his or her goals and objectives to avoid ambiguity. He or she must be a risk taker for conducting such an exercise. Creation of conducive and relaxed climate is an imperative to get desired results. The entire members are to be interdependent and independent to make the team building exercise relevant. There should be a provision for positive and creative ideas. All members must be free to air their opinions and ideas. There has to be collective responsibility and accountability.

How to Build an Effective Team?

It is basically the team leader or manager who should create. He must know group behavior and must be good at group psychology. He must build the team so as to achieve the organizational goals and objectives which are measurable, realistic and attainable. He needs to be an excellent jockey till the race is completed. Resolving conflicts in the team, encouraging relevant meetings, sharing goals and objectives, creating a conducive climate, clear demarcation of the roles and responsibilities , providing adequate training, strengthening bottom lines, communicating effectively and efficiently - a powerful team can be built. There is a team facilitator who provides required guidance and support to the team members. An efficient team member can become a successful team facilitator and then as a team leader. The leader must build members who believe in smart work rather than hard work.

There is a subtle difference between smart work and hard work. For instance, there are two teams each containing three members and are asked to cut two different trees of same size shape and width. The members of team A immediately took their axes and started cutting the tree at the root as the time frame fixed is one hour for both to complete the task. Whereas the members of the team B took around 15 minutes to grind their axes and then they began cutting the tree. And they could cut it with in 15 minutes of starting the activity and finished with in 30 minutes by cutting at the base of the tree. The team A began cutting the tree but failed to do with in an hour and took more than that to fell the tree. Here the difference between the team A and B is: The team A did not plan well, coordinate well and on the other hand they worked very hard but could not achieve the result with in the time frame. It is a clear indication of hard work and their sincerity can not be questioned. Where as the team B, planned well, coordinated properly, ground their axes, worked smartly and got the result much before the deadline. It is a clear indication of smart work. And in this growing technological and competitive world it is not the hard work but the smart work that counts.

Merits of Team Work:

According to Herb Kelleher of South West Airlines – “Team play is a fundamental concept ….. If you want to succeed, if you want to win, you have to play as a team.”

The results can be maximized and expedited due to the strength in synergy. When the team members consult one another during the process, they learn to come out openly and learn to respect others’ ideas. Members start believing with each other shedding their inhibitions and hesitations. The outcome will be in exponential proportions. There will be supplementary and complementary of skills and abilities. At times, the team members come out with ideas which they themselves never thought of, from their subconscious minds. The member also realizes his strengths and weaknesses vis-à-vis other members and tries to overcome his weaknesses and strengthens his strengths.

People working in teams develop using two letter word ‘we’ instead of one letter word ‘I’. Stephen Covey, in his book, ‘The Seven Habits of Highly Effectively People’ wrote about the terminology of synergy and it is one of the greatest habits across the successful people in the world.

Working in groups or teams promotes esprit de corps (loyalty), camaraderie, and problem solving ability. People, when work in teams develop the ability to resolve the conflicts amicably. Due to the physical proximity in teams, the members derive job satisfaction by various means and they gradually develop multitasking abilities. By way of discussions and dialogues, bags of information are generated and team members become more knowledgeable. It is here cooperation replaces competition with in the team members. Ability to stay focused is an efficient trait; the members tend to hit the bulls’ eye accurately. No repetition of the work takes place as all are aware of what is going on right under their noses.

Employee turn over is thorny issue in all sectors of the industry and it can be minimized by inculcating team spirit as people do not feel to quit their organizations when they develop good relations with their colleagues. Optimum utilization of time and available resources can be ensured. There will be enhancement of qualitative work and the recognition of hidden potential amongst the employees.

Team Spirit as a Skill Tested In Interviews:

When the students go for employment, the employers look for the team spirit. The employers will be on the look out for this trait and they try to examine whether the candidate possesses this characteristic. Non possession becomes a major liability and the candidate gets rejected. The psychologists and other interviewing officers try to find out this ability by posing questions from different directions and dimensions and when the candidate demonstrates constantly then only there is a possibility to get into the slot. All organizations whether it is civil or military organizations lays great emphasis on this quality.

Soft skills are a cluster of many skills and abilities and it is said that possession of team spirit is one of the major skills. In order to inculcate this quality, the students must learn to work in teams’ right from their childhood itself by participating in sports, cultural activities, in academic careers to avoid displeasure at the time of interviews. To put it in the words of Stephen Covey, “Strength lies in differences, not in similarities”.




Many fresher find it very difficult to face Group Discussions(GDs) when they go for professional jobs. GD has been made almost mandatory for most of the professional placements. It is also essential for joining MBA courses. The article highlights the importance and significance and the tools and techniques involved in coming out of this process successfully. The expectations of the employer are explained briefly so that the candidates would develop the same to succeed. The entire session has been divided into three sessions such as pre-session, during session and post-session. The article explained about the norms and rules along with the responsible role of moderator to conduct it professionally. It also dwelt at length about the dos and don’ts during the session. At the end it concluded that it is a very easy process and there is fun in participation.


We discuss too many things in daily life at home or in office or in colleges on various topics. We find a few agree to us and a few disagree with us. At home if there are more family members and when they want to take a decision they talk to one another either at dinning table or at leisure time. After duration of heated or cool discussions they build a consesus and finalize a decision.

At the corporate level also there will be frequent meetings on various issues for taking a concrete and solid decision. Hence, we take decisions regularly whether in our personal life, professional life or social life by means of group discussions. Many companies are conducting Group Discussions (GDs) to prospective employees so as to check their suitability to their corporate culture. While we understood the concept of GD let us look at the objectives of the same.


The main objective of any GD is to provide wide range of solutions to a particular problem and then streamlining and creating a viable consensus solution by means of discussion. Discussions always provide more knowledge base. GD generates ideas by way of sharing and exchanging and at times it unlocks many things unconsciously as everyone has hidden potential. At times, new ideas flash from the subconscious mind unconsciously when provoked. It helps in eliciting the personality traits besides enhancing the knowledge base. Usually people tend to brood over problems only not on the solutions. GD helps in generating too many solutions if it is practiced properly. The corporate conduct GDs in order to find out a few qualities they expect from the prospective employees opting for executive cadre level.


Every employer expects a few qualities out of its prospective employees so as to improve and enhance value addition to its institution. There are number of qualities which are expected but a few of them are mentioned briefly.

• Initiative is essential. Without prompting the candidate should be able to take proactive stance in doing the things. He must be willing to come forward actively and voluntarily to shoulder the responsibility.
• Clarity of thoughts. Whether the candidate is able to express coherently, logically, forcefully and clearly his ideas and thoughts is assessed.
• Team building is an essential tool in the corporate world and conducting group discussion is one of the effective ways and means towards team building. If a candidate is not able to contribute towards an effective team he will become a liability. Team spirit is laid too much stress upon these days. In fact teams bring wonderful results because of many synergies and strengths.
• Content is king. Whether the candidate possesses requisite knowledge of the topic or does he beat around the bush.
• The ability to get along and adjusted socially with other colleagues is observed closely. Or whether is he socially inept.
• Emotional Intelligence is the ability to act and react to the situations without inviting any rift or conflict within the group. There is a strong need to display emotional stability and mental maturity in order to succeed in discussions.
• Leadership. It is a great trait which can be cultivated by continuous practice. The ability to lead from the front voluntarily so as to keep the interests of the group as paramount. The ability to manage divergent people with different opinions and views is essential.
• Interpersonal skills and relations is the area where every employer lays stress upon. In day to day life, everyone should learn to behave smoothly and productively for achieving organizational goals and objectives. Considerable amount of time is spent at the corporate world towards interpersonal skills.
• Ability to manage the given time and equally important is the ability to respect others’ time is more important. Many man hours are wasted because of improper time management.
• There should be burning desire and passion which is essential for success in professional life. As long as there is fire in the belly of an individual lot of results can be expected. There is growing stress on passion.
• Learnability is the ability to listen attentively and alertly to learn the things. As long as an individual possesses this trait the individual will grow personally and professionally.
• Flexibility is the ability to accept others’ viewpoints positively by considering the merits without any egoistic attitude. And also it is the ability to change oneself according to the surroundings and requirements.
• Presentation skills are essential at the corporate life. Every professional needs to deliver presentations regularly either to persuade his clients or his superiors or peers or subordinates.
• Above all, the employer looks for soft skills which are focused heavily these days.

The process of GD can be divided as pre-session, during session and post session so as to make it comprehensive and understandable.


Read number of books, journals, magazines and publications related to GDs. Also visit various websites which will provide right direction. Find out your strengths and weaknesses both at the personal and at the professional level. After taking stock try to overcome your weaknesses. Before going for the real session it is advisable to collect like minded friends and join as a team and conduct mock GDs. In fact, everyone involves in one discussion or the other in our daily life. By converting such informal discussions productively by channelising in a right direction, the art of discussion can be cultivated and inculcated.

Usually people talk of cinema and cricket and other gossips in daily life. And if the same ambience is covered and canvassed with controversial or thoughtful topics, we can make a mock GD. By practicing number of times before the real GD, we can gain wonderful expertise and experience. One may give too many theoretical guidelines and outlines but ultimately it is the practice that makes the man perfect. Through mock GDs the strengths and weaknesses can be analyzed and weaknesses can be corrected so that it becomes easy on the D-day.


The total number of participants must be minimum 8 and moderate level of 10 and the maximum must be 16. Beyond this it will be difficult to manage, concentrate and evaluate. The ideal size must be 8 to 10. And the time frame fixed is between 10 to 15 minutes. If the session is extended beyond 15 minutes it would loose its impact. Make the formation of the group either circular or rectangular.


Every GD will have a moderator who moderates the discussion. He ensures that the participants do not go out of the track. He must see to it that conflicts are averted and commotions are avoided. All efforts must be made to maintain the decency and decorum of the discussion. He should act like a leader and trigger passion amongst the participants. He should stimulate and bring out synergy from the strength of the participants. He should be free from pre-conceived notions and should not judge any participant by his appearance or academic achievements. He has to provide honest feedback to each participant without any prejudices. He must be supportive and sympathetic to the members without any favoritism.


• Speak clearly, audibly and politely. Do not use harsh tone.
• Initiate the discussion if you are confident of the topic and if you can provide valid justification to prove your point. Or else wait for the right opportunity to express.
• Don’t look at the moderator. Do concentrate on the topic only.
• Don’t jump into conclusions. Talk about the topic, provide valid points and then offer firm opinions.
• Listen attentively to the topic and weigh its pros and cons and then comment.
• Try to carry the participants along with you.
• Don’t get emotional and do maintain calm and stability.
• Don’t declare yourself as a self-styled leader.
• Never get sidetracked from the given topic.
• Don’t agree for the sake of agreeing in order to build consensus and don’t dilute your independent thinking.
• If someone talks for a longer time, request him to make it brief and concise and also request him to provide an opportunity for others too to speak.
• Present yourself professionally to create good impression.
• Do demonstrate conceptual skills, human skills, critical skills, analytical skills, common skills, hard skills and soft skills in the entire session.
• Do not interrupt the conversation. If you strongly feel to intervene then add statements like ’if you permit I would speak. . . .’ and then offer your comments.
• How you present is more important than what you present. Application of soft skills will prove to be handy.
• Do not monopolize or hijack the discussion. Provide opportunity to non participants to air their views.
• Don’t provoke any conflict.
• Never snub the participants. Always express assertiveness in your views.
• Support and substantiate your views with facts and figures or by narrating a brief story.
• If possible open the discussion with a wonderful quotation or shocking statements or revelations to make your comments catchy.
• Don’t speak for the sake of speaking but speak for the sake of providing substance.
• Honestly accept and accommodate the comments of fellow participants to get along with the participants. Don’t gaze at a particular participant and talk, rather shift your eye ball movement towards all the participants so that they will develop interest and curiosity to listen to you.
• Demonstrate positive body language.
• Be cheerful and maintain smile.
• Do lay stress on quality of delivery not the quantity.
• You may criticize the views or opinions of other participants but not them personally.
• When you differ with the views of other person, you may say like ‘I respect your views. However I differ with your views on the topic . . .’ and offer your own views.
• Be always tactful and diplomatic especially when your views are not in tune with that of other participant.
• Use simple and straight language and don’t confuse the participants with jargon.
• Present your views logically, coherently and forcefully.
• Look at the things from others’ perspective.
• Manage your time judiciously.
• Try to build consensus, collaborate and bring different viewpoints into one main line of acceptable level.
• At the end, take initiative to synthesize and summarize what was discussed and provide conclusion. But don’t add any fresh points.


After completion of the session, write down your experience by going flash back in the areas where you have done well and where you have gone wrong. Such constructive and creative self analysis will pave the way for better performance next time. Continuously practice such sessions in simulated situations so as to attain perfection, competence and confidence.


Participation in Groups Discussions is indeed fun and provides education and entertainment. Instead of depending too much on theoretical aspects it is essential to actively participate and learn the tricks of the trade. It is like learning how to swim and drive. GD teaches many lessons in life that will help become a successful and complete corporate personality.



On the other day when I was role playing in a Soft Skills Workshop organized by Infosys in Hyderabad, a person hit my spectacles and it was broken. Suddenly I got angry and I thought of hitting him back. I could not control my feelings and emotions for a moment and I was about to outburst because I did not have any spare spects at that time. But I immediately controlled my anger because it happened accidentally, unconsciously and unintentionally. The other person regretted for hitting and for breaking my spects even though it happened without any negative intention. Had the situation been intentional I would have suddenly expressed my anger and would have warned him sternly for the same.


It is a state of emotional outburst related to the psyche of the individual. Some people ascribe it due to genetic factors and some are grown up to be angry when their social upbringing was subjected to severe criticism in their childhood. Also when a section of people are neglected for a long time or suppressed or oppressed they vent out anger in multiple proportions. One thing is certain and sure that there is always danger in anger. A few people express anger frequently by their very nature.


Psychology of an individual plays a crucial role in finding out the reasoning for sudden outburst. The inability to judge the people properly or due to preconceived notions or prejudices can result into anger. Whenever there is a vast gap between one's expectations and realities, the problem begins. Individuals tend to develop either sympathy or antipathy towards other individuals. If there is strong antipathy against a particular person, then again the problems crop in. When the issues are kept pending or when not addressed appropriately, that becomes a danger signal. Lack of openness and sharing can create problems. It is often the clash of egos and conflicts. Wrong inputs may lead to complications. Improper time management at the work place may result in delay and thus resulting in anger. When an individual is unable to look at the things from others' perspective due to lack of empathy, then also anger builds up.

At the work front when an individual does not reach his prescribed targets then the emotions outburst and self-criticism starts. Both the internal and external factors play crucial deciding factors. If any pressure due to external, an individual attacks on others. If any mistake because of one, one resorts to self-criticism. In this case, it becomes a psychological problem.


It is like tsunami effect for both the individual and for the individuals in and around both physically and psychologically. Heart beat increases and may result in transferring the anger to somebody and which further complicates the matter worse. There will be no concentration on the work and leading to negativism and feeling strongly that all are wrong.

At the corporate level due to the increased competition and workload, people are developing high stress levels and subsequently burning out. Long years of relations that have been tried and tested and are built based on mutual trust and confidence will break up with in no time. In corporate world, anger results in loss of clients and loss of business, which in turn leads to loss of prospects. Society does not accept people with anger and such people become socially inept. They are treated as liability not as an asset in the corporate world. It ends in loss of respect and image. Of course, there is sudden relief to mind and one feels relaxed after losing temper. One can recoup fresh energies, which is the only silver lining over the dark cloud of anger. 'Where there is anger, there will be affection' goes famous Tamil saying which is another positivity from negativity.


The first and foremost thing is not to attack the person but the behavior of the person. Identify the problem why the other person went that much extreme. Once the hidden feelings or emotions are noticed then the half battle on anger is won. Firstly, the angered person must label his feelings. Secondly, there is need to express and report the root cause of such feelings. Thirdly, there is a strong need to take action before it becomes a volcano. And fourthly, there is a need to follow up the entire process in a systematic manner.

An individual must introspect and take intrapersonal feedback within himself about the causes, consequences and then about the credibility of the anger. If an individual is honest at the core he can judge himself and can come out of it successfully. Secondly, he can meet a trusted friend and explain the scenario frankly in order to verify and cross check from his judgement. If there is contradiction between the individual and the other person then the solution, which is more genuine, should be adopted.

An individual can go and talk to friends forgetting the anger and relax himself. While sympathy makes the other person better it is in fact the empathy that makes the other person stronger. Pinpointing the problem is the right method and analyzing the same from the root provides the right solution. A mature man resorts to quick correction and limits the damage. It requires extraordinary courage to go for self-analysis and introspection to manage the damage. Doing meditation and yoga can bring fresh energies to the mind. It also enhances creative energy and brings down the tempers to the lowest level. Addressing and redressing the grievances without any delay is essential.


The organizations are taking the concept of anger management very seriously and the concept is added in many seminars because of growing stress levels due to stiff competition. Everyone is serious and is working harder and smarter in order to prove himself. When one fails in reaching his targets or goals or deadlines at the work front then there will be strained relations with in the companies.

Drinking water when one feels that one is irritated and feels strongly that it will result into sudden outburst will prove to be handy. Counting numbers from 1 to 10 and vice versa can contain the anger. Keeping quiet for sometime is also a good thing. Or leave the room so that the tempers can be averted. It is also necessary to go separately from the scene and do inhaling and exhaling exercises as it avoids embarrassing situation and also gives fresh oxygen to mind. Be cool and go in front of the mirror and force yourself for a repeated smile.


Amitabh Bachhan was known as an angry young man in his initial celluloid career. He put his anger in aggression and acted in selective roles and succeeded in his celluloid world. He knew his strengths and weaknesses and he intelligently converted his weaknesses into strengths by channeling his energies in a creative and stylish manner.

Globally renowned Gold sportsperson, Tiger Woods is also noted for aggression and for his razor sharp tongue. He also utilized his energies in a constructive and creative manner and is a global celebrity.


All human beings are not free from weaknesses. Channelise the hidden emotions and energies in a creative and constructive form so as to vent our feelings softly rather than harshly. We can change, transform by fine-tuning our skills and abilities. Let us all put sincere efforts to turn our scars into stars for building a society, which is full of love, peace and harmony.



After completion of the tenth standard, the students in India are confronted with what kind of stream they should opt for in 10 plus 2 (Intermediate). Is it commerce, science, arts or computers etc.? At the age of approx. 15 years itself students start thinking, which stream to follow? At this stage, they may not be able to decide and hence they leave their career choice to their parents to decide. The parents look at the pulse of the market and the present potential and trend in the job scenario and they advise their children to opt for a particular stream. This is the way career choice is made indirectly in the initial stage in India. Is it justified to thrust upon their children? If not, then what should be done?

It is necessary to look at the aptitude, attitude, abilities and awareness of the child and then proper choice should be made. The parents should study the progress report and find out the areas where the child is weak and strong. After weighing thoroughly his past and present performance then the choice should be offered and the child should be counseled accordingly. If this happens then the child takes interest automatically and without any external initiative from parents he will study and pass the examinations.


Usually the students go for conventional careers where the risk is minimal and nominal. The conventional careers means not swimming against the current but rather sailing with stream and trend. For instance, there is an excellent trend towards engineering, medicine and management profession these days. It is mostly because of availability of plenty of jobs. Both the students and parents want to play safe by opting for hot cake section. Where as in the unconventional careers the risk is higher and prospects are not clear like fashion designing and entertainment industries. These are the roads less traveled and there will be high risk and high returns. One has to swim against the current. According to American author, Dale Carnegie there are six types of fears human beings face such as fear of criticism, fear of old age, fear of poverty, fear of ill health, fear of death and fear of failure. It is basically the ‘fear of failure’, which is the root cause for not opting for unconventional careers.


SWOT is the acronym for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. It is a powerful tool regularly used by corporate to find out the implications and effects of strategic decision making. And whenever the companies are going for mergers and acquisitions or take overs, then also it is conducted and evaluated by an independent body headed by a person who is known as corporate planner or a strategist. The same tool can be applied vis-a-vis career decision. What are the strengths and weaknesses of taking up a particular career? Whether the student possesses the personal qualities and competencies. If not possessed and the students wants to pursue, he can overcome the weakness by thorough practice and training. Any skill or competency can be acquired if there is will power to attain the same. The cherished career must have wider opportunities so as to minimize and eliminate the risks. The probable threats involved both from internal and external angles should be examined thoroughly. The internal threats arise out of the individual incompetence while the external threats arise which are beyond the reach and control of the individual. One should be able to anticipate and discount internal threats and, overall, one should be wary of threats related to the career.


What happens if an individual makes a wrong move and opts for a wrong career? He will never enjoy his work and he will be in a continuous hell. He will have everything but no mental peace and develop stress levels. In some cases people fail in their careers and they keep doubting their confidence levels. Self-esteem decreases. At the work place they will be subjected to ridicule, laughter, insult and humiliation.


According to Md.Mubeen Shaikh, the faculty of Arkay College of Engg. & Tech, Bodhan in Andhra Pradesh, “At the age of 15 years the student is not able to decide any specific stream of his choice. Therefore, there should be no stream specialization or selection just after 10th class itself. Rather it should be postponed to after 10 plus 2 (Intermediate) level”. By the age of 17 the students will be mature enough to select the stream of their choice which could be free from family or teacher or parental influence. One can give out his best when one enjoys what he is doing.

Presently people opt for medical and engineering after 10 plus 2(Intermediate) and the career options are limited, as these two are considered professional. If computer or commerce is also made like professional qualification by application of computer or management related subjects respectively, the students will take more interest in those areas also and they can be easily absorbed into jobs. By converting non professional qualifications as professional and the base for professional courses get widened.


When the students are caught between the devil and deep sea they can approach the career coach. Now a day there is professionalism around everywhere. Taking the help of career consultants will be of great use. Usually it is the parents who provide the career support. If not, then the teacher should provide such support. When students approach the career counselors, they view it from career perspective and can provide right tools and techniques towards right career decision.


Students should know that jobs don't grow on trees and there is right seed for the right career. Choose a career that is a sure shot passport to your success. In few cases, it is observed that students scale the ladder of success and realize at the end that the ladder is on the wrong side of the wall. The onus lies with parents and teachers to see that the ladder is placed on the right wall. When one gets a job of his choice and spouse of his choice he is said to be the luckiest. Set your priorities rightly based on the life the way you want according to your tastes and temperaments such as your job satisfaction, work life balance, monetary aspects etc., Rank all your priorities in the scale of 1 to 5 from three dimensions, such as personal level, social level and professional level. And choose the career after weighing all the pros and cons. Once the right career decision is made work hard to achieve your goals for ensuring all round peace, progress and prosperity.




At the outset, the article starts with a wonderful quotation of Abraham Maslow. The article speaks in volumes about the Career Planning and Career Management individually and Career Planning and Management collectively both from the individual and institutional perspective. The concept of SWOT analysis is utilized to pave the way for the right career. The repercussions like stress and burn out are highlighted if CPM is not adhered adequately. Various tools and techniques are dwelt at length in order to make CPM effective and efficient. The concepts like multipotentiality and early emerger are focussed to make the script interesting. At the end, the author comes out with a clarion call ‘not to compromise the career for monetary consideration but to plan and manage the career from all perspectives’.
* * * *

“Human needs arrange themselves in hierarchies of pre-potency. That is to say, the appearance of one need usually rests on the prior satisfaction of another, more pre-potent need. Man is a perpetually wanting animal”- Abraham Maslow in his hierarchy of needs theory.

"By spending just 10 per cent of GDP (RS 4,90,000 Crores) on skill repair, the country would be able to generate extra income of 61 percent of GDP (RS 17,51,487 Crores) for the current unemployable youth", according to India Labor Report 2007. There is a wide mismatch between unemployment and unemployability. It is well known that unemployment means lack of job opportunities where as unemployability means people having the requisite qualification but not having the requisite skills and abilities to get the job despite availability of jobs. Rather unemployability arises due to skills deficit. Career Planning and Management (CPM) will address the issue of unemployability effectively.


Because of the growing attrition rate there is greater focus on CPM by all companies. The companies find it difficult to hire the employees, as there is no skill set matching at the recruitment. This is the problem that is one side of the coin. And the other side of the coin is another problem of retaining the employees. Besides, poaching of employees by the rival companies. Likewise, problems are getting manifold at the corporate level. The companies are conducting regular workshops, seminars and training sessions in order to upgrade the skills and abilities of their employees in enhancing efficiency and efficacy. The growing competition and the rapid changes in technology also compelled the corporate to train and groom their employees regularly.

The Human Resources Department (HRD) that basically involves the employees from recruitment to retirement is gradually reinventing its role by focussing more on development of the professionals apart from their traditional role. The roles and responsibilities of HRD are getting expanded with the fast changing business environment. The liberalization, privatization and globalization have opened up the Indian economy. As a result, MNCs have come and competed with the Indian companies. Initially the Indian companies were worried with the onslaught of MNCs but gradually Indian entrepreneurs realized that there were no way out of it and began competing. Although there were many initial hiccups, gradually things were settled and the hidden potential of Indian business has come out and now we find Indian MNCs across the world which is a positive and victorious sign. All these contributed into specialization of each area and line of professional activities. There is growing professionalism in each and every area of business. So is the case with each and every department of every institution. The HRD began concentrating and expanding the roles and responsibilities related to career planning and management of its precious human resources to make it effective and efficient to check rising attrition.


SWOT is the acronym for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. It is an effective tool either to evaluate career prospects or to solve any problems in day to day life. It is widely used in all spheres of personal and professional life, be it, for individuals or for institutions.

When we look at individually, SWOT analysis is as mentioned below. The person who passes out of his college and who intends to search for a right placement should evaluate himself his strengths, such as his academic qualifications, achievements, honors, any research papers etc., Academically, he should analyze his aptitude, attitude, tastes and temperaments. And he should list out if he got any distinction. Whether he has won class first, or gold medal etc., He should look at his personal qualities where he is strong at and in which way he can capitalize his strengths. Coming to the weaknesses he should analyze the subjects or areas where he is weak and look at if he can convert his weaknesses into strengths. If the person lacks a few qualities or capabilities to get a job of his choice, he should put efforts to improve himself by systematic training and practice. Regarding the opportunities the person should look at wider opportunities so as to have wider choice of survival and success in his chosen career. Rather one should look at risk minimization and risk elimination. Usually one can not avoid threats but one must be able to manage the probable or possible threats, which could be both internal and external. The threats resulting out of internal are better manageable than that of external.


After conducting SWOT analysis, one can easily come to a conclusion about one's aptitude towards career. In India, the career planning (CP) mostly lies in the hands of parents followed by teachers and friends. Rather it is advisable to look at the career from one's own perspective such as mental aptitude, social and economic dimensions. CP is a crucial factor either to make or break one's career. If one selects wrong career the life would become a hell. God gifted us only 24 hours. Out of this 24 hours, people spend approx. 6 to 8 hours for sleep. 6 to 8 hours again for social and recreational activities and commuting from work place to residence and vice versa. People work from 8 to 14 hours a day depending upon the career and service one has chosen. All these timings are flexible totaling again God gifted 24 hours a day. So most of the time is spent at the work place followed by regular sleep and then again with family.

If one gets the job of his choice and spouse of his choice s/he is said to be the luckiest. Because one can enjoy his work at office and prosper and similarly at home he can lead a peaceful and pleasant life. Either building or breaking one's life solely depends on the selection of career. Once the right career is planned, all efforts should be put to pursue the same. The right tools and techniques should be acquired to meet the goals and plans. Adequate courses, degrees, skills and abilities are to be acquired regularly so as to fine-tune with the desired career goal. Once the cherished career is achieved it is just the beginning the real battle.

There is a need to upgrade with the tricks of the trade related to the job. By accepting a capable and veteran as a mentor the career can be pursued more effectively and efficiently. Time and again there would be both internal and external problems, which have to be properly handled, and managed so as to ensure survival and success in the chosen career.

Keeping goals, which are duration based one can gradually, scale the ladder of career. Now a day, there is rapid change in technology and one who keeps pace with the changes can attune himself and can smoothly scale the ladder in any organization.


Fresher of college pass out are young and energetic and their priorities are different. They should not get into job for the sake of job. Rather they must look at the niceties and pitfalls of pursuing a specific career and must pursue after weighing the pros and cons. They must view career not only from financial perspective but also growth perspective. If they get into the right track they can pull the strings for the fast track. In most of the cases, the fresher get into wrong career track and struggle to get into the right career track resulting into wastage of precious energies, time and money. And, of course, a few get demoralized.

For middle aged, the priorities are different. They are mature and tested and tasted the life but the family problems keep pulling them behind. They easily get into the right track but may find it difficult to be on the fast career track due to family, social and economic conditions.

For those on the verge of retiring or those who are just at their fag end of their life, their energies don't support. However, they can encash on their past experience to mould themselves to provide guidance and mentoring to the youngsters.

Overall, CPM is well said than done. There are always critical gaps between planning and execution. However, the career development professional can play a vital role to fill the gaps.


Research reveals that only 2 out of 10 employees are the most suitable to get selected for placements and the rest 8 are not able to cope up resulting into stress. These two are enjoying, learning, earning and growing in their organizations. What is about the balance 8 employees?

The companies also have no option but to recruit the people although there is mismatch in the expected abilities and accepted realities. All these are leading to higher stress levels at the work front, as the employees are not fully competent to cope up with the job expectations. Inability to manage the same is leading to the initial stage of stress and subsequently to burn out stage. While stress is the initial stage, burn out is the ultimate stage.

A few well-established companies are providing meditation and yoga classes to their employees during the working hours to manage the stress. They are also providing counseling classes and conducting various seminars and workshops to highlight this menace.

If people opt for careers based on their aptitude and abilities rather on prestigious or monetary considerations the stress could be minimized to a greater extent.


• Dr. Stephen R Covey, in his book, ‘The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People’ highlighted one of the habits such as continuously learning and growing. Education is a learning process from womb to tomb. Always learn new things and trends in the trade so as to stay ahead of stiff competition.
• It is essential to network effectively with the people in and around you. Networking should not be from one side and should be based on the policy of ‘give and take’. The growing communication taught many lessons. Although it separated people physically it connected people mentally and emotionally thereby promoting relations. Networking is a powerful tool to CPM. But never neglect the present network.
• ‘A bird in hand is worth two in the bush’ goes the saying. Never neglect the present job. There are many lessons we can learn from the present job either from seniors or peers or from subordinates. By interacting frequently with colleagues professionally, many tools and techniques can be learnt. One can create new tools from the present experience, which may become the benchmark for others to emulate. By working diligently in the same job one can rise from the rest and can stand out from the pack.
• Passion to learn and grow and passion to go extra mile will prove handy for career success. Inculcating inquiry spirit will make one to stretch out. When an individual works with passion in the same trade, there will be recognition and response and the opportunities will become manifold.
• Attending seminars, workshops and courses will expand ones mental horizons and attending such events will provide wider network and exposure. Each job has its own skills set and if one wants to get into another related or unrelated line of career, there is a strong need to acquire such skills set.
• The CV is a concrete, accomplishable tool for job search. The CV of an individual must regularly modify with the changes in the skill set and with the courses, or skills or abilities one acquired. The more modifications in the CV are an indication of more transformational changes in the personality. In the CV, try to project what the employer expects thereby enhancing marketability.
• Always be in touch with the labor market with details like potential, opportunities, changes etc., Coupled with labor market, research on the career regularly will throw new light. In a nutshell, search, research and in touch with the job market is an imperative.
• If required, be in touch with career development professional that will do your job in a professional manner. Such professionals ensure smooth career shift and career success.
• This is the age and stage of specialization. All efforts must be put to find out what exactly one wants to pursue and narrow down the options to one or two and again pursue the same up to the hilt. There is no logic in beating around the bush. Don’t let your mind waver in complexity but be in simplicity and accuracy.
• According to statistics, approx. 80,000 hours of our life is spent at the work place. Try to spend it wisely, qualitatively and happily by enjoying the same.
• Always set your priorities right and straight and pursue accordingly.
• Always exit the existing institution with sweet will and good will.


Two terms like ‘multipotentiality’ and ‘early emerger’ are often used in CPM. According to Frederickson & Rothney, 1972, “Multipotentiality is the ability to select and develop any number of career options because of a wider variety of interests, aptitudes and abilities”. In fact, multipotentiality is a person who is capable in various activities right from the scratch. Rather he is a versatile person. Such kinds of people are strong in many areas but not in in-depth knowledge. Such people can be called as Jack of all trades but master of none.

On the contrary, ‘early emerger’ is a person who is highly focussed in one activity right from the childhood. He has passion and he tends to continue in his passionate field. He is unmindful of other areas of interest. Rather he is specialist in one area. Such people can be called as Jack of none but master of one trade.

There are pros and cons in both multipotentialities and early emergers. Such concepts will help in selecting the right career based on one’s mental aptitude and attitude towards the career.


Don’t lose so much of happy life for so little money. Don’t become a round peg in a square hole or a square peg in a round hole. Identify the right aptitude, plan the right career and manage it. Acquire the right ingredients to reach the cherished career and chase it till the end to reach your goals and motivate yourself constantly in the process. And ultimately reach your beloved career. Up to here, it is only the half of the battle won and the rest half would be won only when you manage your career by acquiring and upgrading skills and abilities continuously.


Life is short and make it sweet. And don’t make your career like a prison sentence. Everything depends on the perceptions of the person. There is a strong need to strike the balance between work and life and between money and recreation. CPM as a tool, if utilized and managed effectively and efficiently, the life could be spent qualitatively leaving a mark behind.




The article highlights about concept of common skills, which become the bedrock of all skills among people. The most TEN common skills have been chosen after filtering with pros and cons of all skills and abilities based on certain parameters. All the ten common skills have been briefly explained. A comparative study has been made amongst common skills, hard skills and soft skills. At the end there is a strong message that these three concepts are essential for becoming a successful personality.

People may have heard of soft skills and hard skills. Perhaps very few people may have heard of Common Skills. When one of my favorite students, and a bright student, G.Amulya Reddy, III year IT branch in Vijay Rural Engg. College, Nizamabad asked 'Sir, What do you mean by Common Skills?' I was little surprised to hear and developed curiosity to find out what these skills actually are? Initially I thought that these were the skills and abilities, which were common among all individuals. But I decided to know fully and then referred a few books and websites. Because it is always my in-built nature to know the things in depth as I am basically an inquisitive person.

We talk about common sense in daily life. That means the common qualities, which are expected out of human beings, based on a particular cultural background. When people make silly and folly mistakes, which are not expected out of them, we usually question 'Don't you have common sense?' Likewise, common skills are the skills and abilities, which are connecting and running through a common thread that are fundamentally essential for the survival and success of the people. These skills become the core skills for human beings and we can call it as core skills or key skills. Since these skills ensure survival and success of the people we may call them as survival skills and success skills. Having known what are common skills it is desirable to explain in brief what are these common skills. Again there are plenty of common skills but I would like to take TEN key skills, which are common.


Communication skill: Communication skill is the key of all skills. We all communicate from womb to tomb. Man can not survive without communication. He communicates either by verbal language or by non-verbal language or by the combination of both. Under verbal language falls speaking skills, writing skills, listening skills and reading skills. And under the non-verbal language falls the body language, which is also known as kinesics and voice modulation. The ability and the skill to receive and reciprocate one’s feelings and emotions by all these elements are known as communication skill.

Creativity: All individuals must possess the ability to create and recreate. Many inventions have surfaced because of this ability. Individuals should not only learn the things but also be able to create new things based on their learning and observation. And for all this, creativity becomes again another core skill.

Career development: Managing and developing one's own career is essential so as to survive and succeed in life. There could be many personal, social and professional compulsions. When one is able to develop one's career, naturally there will be all round development of personality.

Team spirit: Ability to work in teams is necessary. When people learn to develop team spirit by working in teams, the results can be faster and smarter. If numerically one plus one is two, in team spirit one plus one is more than two because of the synergy in strength.

Technology: This is the world of technology where technology is dominating the world. Not knowing or not learning technology will lead to many complications and implications. People should know the basics of technology and should equally know the application of the same. For instance, now a day, Internet has become common thing. If people know how to make use of the minimum computer technology they will know how to survive and succeed better.

Time management: Although rapid changes in technology have brought many comforts, it has made life more complicated and complex. People do not find time and it is often heard every where that ‘I don’t have time’. God gifted us with 24 hours of time a day. Every one should know how to manage time effectively and efficiently. Setting priorities by categorizing as A, B, C, D & E can prove to be beneficial. A stand for the most important activities which if not addressed will have far-reaching negative implications. B stands for important activities and if not executed will have minor negative fall out. C stands for the activities, which have to be addressed but not having any significance. D stands for the activities, which can be addressed if time permits. And last but not the least is the E, which stands for insignificant activity. If addressed it is okay or else it can be sent to trash. So setting priorities can save time, energy and precious resources.

Sociability: Aristotle aptly said, ‘Man is a social animal’. Man can’t live alone; he strives for affiliation and social acceptance. A few people found to be socially inept. In such case, it becomes a liability. For the success and survival of the people it is essential to develop the trait of sociability. Therefore, this skill becomes the core skill and one of the fundamental features of the common skills.

Self-development: People should learn to manage and develop themselves. It is inherent quality hidden in all human beings to grow. Every one wants to grow from birth to death in all faculties. Only when one develops himself he can develop others. Therefore, managing and developing of oneself becomes a core skill.

Numerical ability: The ability to have knowledge of numerical ability is a must. Having numerical bent of mind is essential in daily life. Not only having this ability but also to have the ability to apply, as well in the real world is essential.

Problem solving: WHO has made problem solving as the 8th life skill. Everyone confronts problems from birth to death. Problems are part of life and every problem, at times, leads to an opportunity. Man becomes tough only when he faces problems because every problem teaches some lessons in life. ‘A smooth sea never made a skillful mariner’ goes the saying. In fact when the going gets tough the tough gets going. Hence the problem solving becomes the tenth most crucial skill amongst all common skills.

There are number of other skills which belong and become the part of common skills. For instance cognitive i.e. the ability to think creatively, critically and analytically. Empathy - that means the ability to get into the shoes of other person and think. Research i.e. the ability to go in depth in a field or activity for creating base for further and future studies. Personality development and likewise the list of common skills go on in length.


People do get confused with common skills, hard skills and soft skills. There are both thin and thick lines that separate all these three concepts. Soft skills are the skills that are essential for the survival at the corporate world that enhances employability. Anything other than domain knowledge is also known as soft skill. These are also known as people skills and also known as Emotional Intelligence. Soft skills are specialized skills at the work place more on a professional plane. Where as the common skills are the key skills, which are simple skills, related to personal and social life. The hard skills are just the domain knowledge and are related to the subjective knowledge. Hard skills deal with 5 W’s such as What, Why, Which, Where and When. The soft skills deal with 1H i.e. How? If what you have become the hard skills, how you present the same becomes the soft skills. All the three skills are interrelated and if interwoven makes an individual highly successful personality.


What common sense is to human sense, the common skills are to human skills. Both hard skills and soft skills can be compared with two layers of the earth with lower layer being hard skills, surface layer being soft skills. And deep within the core of the earth being the common skills. And also common skills are known as core skills which become the infrastructure, then hard skills are known as domain skills which become the superstructure and finally the soft skills are known as surface skills which becomes the superior structure.



“ A good teacher is like a candle – it consumes itself to light the way for others”. Author unknown.

All teachers can’t make impact in the minds of their students. But a very few teachers touch the hearts of their students thereby becoming legends. There is no specific formula or a secret mantra in this, except dedication, determination and discipline in the methods of their teaching. Good teachers work with passion and they are totally involved in their profession and they contribute their best without expecting any rewards or returns from their students except with burning desire to be great at their profession. Many people think that teaching is an inborn quality to become a great teacher and it proved beyond doubt there are teachers who were not blessed great but became great teachers by virtue of their sincere efforts, abilities through practice, concentration and training. William Arthur ward said, “The mediocre teacher tells. The good teacher explains. The superior teacher demonstrates. The great teacher inspires”. A teacher is like a player of a musical instrument. He can produce either a sad music or a joyful music by way of playing the instrument. A good subject can be taught in an ineffective manner and a poor subject can be taught in an effective manner. And everything depends totally on the presentation of the player (i.e.teacher).

Wikipedia defined teacher, “In education, teachers facilitate, student learning, often in a school or academy. The objective typically a course of study, lesson plan or a practical skill including learning and thinking skills". In China, teacher is called as SHIFU, or SIFU, in UK, it is called as MENTOR and teacher is also called as GURU in India and is also referred to as RABBI or TUTOR etc.,


Teachers can be classified in various types; such as good teacher versus bad teacher, friendly teacher versus hostile teacher, jovial teacher versus strict teacher, dominant teacher versus submissive teacher, serious teacher versus casual teacher and so on.

According to R.Verdi, “Good teachers are those who know how little they know, bad teachers are those who think they know more than they don't know”. The good teachers never boost nor boast of themselves too much. However knowledgeable they might be, they think and declare that whatever they know is only a drop of an ocean. On the other hand, the bad teachers are poor performers who are not knowledgeable and in order to cover up their weaknesses, they pretend to be strong at subject. These kinds of teachers always blame their students for not concentrating in the class. It is like a weak tradesman who always blames his tools and never admits his weak workmanship.

A friendly teacher is always amenable, adjustable and empathizes with their students and narrows down the gap between faculty and students thereby developing relations. Such a teacher is always accessible to the students for clarifying their doubts. On the other hand, a hostile teacher is inimical and his actions towards their students are reactive rather than proactive. They display unfriendly and irritating attitude when they hear from their students that other teachers are teaching better than him. Hostile teachers don’t take criticism constructively and positively in their stride.

The jovial teachers are replete with fun and humor. They entertain students with lot of humorous jokes and anecdotes and they believe in imparting education in an entertaining manner. They do not get provoked and take the comments from the students jovially. While teaching, this kind of teachers believes in the carrot but not stick policy. This kind of teachers behaves from ‘Child Ego State’. (According Dr.Berne, there are three types of ego states – ‘Patent Ego State’, ‘Adult Ego State’ and Child Ego State’ i.e. PAC Ego States). On the other hand, the strict teachers are, no doubt, good teachers but they believe in stick rather than carrot in the method of teaching. They expect the class to be total silent and they do not encourage their students to discuss on the topic among themselves. This kind of teachers is highly knowledgeable and uncompromising. Mostly they behave like Parent Ego State.

The dominant teachers are again a type of strict teachers but the degree of strictness is higher and hence can also be called as dictatorial or autocratic teachers. They hardly bother about the sentiments, views and opinions of their students. On the contrary, the submissive teachers are those who always succumb to the demands of their students and they do not know how to control their students. Both these types are unwarranted and uncalled for and what is expected is the average of these two traits which can be called as assertive teachers who strike a fine chord between dominant teachers and submissive teachers. An assertive teacher behaves from all the three ego states i.e. Parent, Adult and Child Ego States situational. “The best teachers teach from heart, not from the book”, anonymous. An assertive teacher is the best teacher and an ideal teacher who teaches from his heart.

The serious teachers are by nature serious in their approach and they teach without adding any touch of humor but they are very efficient and effective and believe in professional approach. The students learn the topics in a professional manner. For this kind of teachers work is worship. They always mean business. On the contrary, the casual teachers take everything lightly but not seriously and may not be stuffed with adequate knowledge and believe in completing the syllabus and passing their time. This kind of teachers’ work for the sake of working and they never win the hearts of their students.


Lola May quoted, “There are three things to remember when teaching; know your stuff, know whom you are stuffing; and then stuff them elegantly”. Any one can become a good teacher if equipped with certain qualities and characteristics.

A teacher wears many a hat such as, he should be an effective communicator, leader, disciplinarian, mentor, guide, parent, friend, philosopher, motivator, counselor, actor, a role model, well wisher, manager, fair and impartial etc.,
He should not take the things for granted.

Should concentrate on all students equally but rather more on the weak or dull students who needs little more care and attention.

Should carry the entire students along with them as a team leader.

A teacher should be thorough and well versed with the subjective knowledge and should add outside information along with the topics relevantly whenever warranted.

Should have higher levels of energy and enthusiasm.

Should remember the names of all the students in the class.

Should always work with sincerity and integrity.

Should know how to present the topic based on common sense. If students are found to be not tuned or going out of the track they should be criticized privately. On the other hand, if any students does anything miracle must be praised publicly in the class. Such acts serve as positive strokes and the rest of the students would like to catch up it with such positive trend.

A great teacher teaches but also inspires, motivates and changes the mindsets of their students and also the entire world. A great teacher always works with heart and head, as both are essential for effective teaching. A great teacher never demands but always commands respect from his students.

A great teacher is not only a teacher but also a great listener and learner. He teaches what he knows to his students and learns from what the students’ know. Egotism is not the quality of a great teacher. A good teacher concentrates more on weak students rather on bright students as Mara Collins said, “The good teacher makes the poor student good and good student superior”.

A great teacher always sees big picture. Whenever he finds that the topic is tough he breaks down the topic into several small pieces and explains the small pieces effectively and efficiently to the students and gradually assembles the pieces into a one single entity mentally and explains. He should be a voracious reader of various books, magazines, journals, browser of many educational web sites and should be a good observer.

A great teacher is like a Gardner who plants seeds, waters and feels satisfied when it starts blooming. He knows the psychology of his students, must be highly creative, dreamer and must rise expectations and aspirations of his students. He should never be reactive but should always be proactive. He lays stress not only on education but also on ethical values and character building. He involves in character building apart from subject building.


“More important than the curriculum is the question of the methods of teaching and the spirit in which the teaching is given”, Bertrand Russell.

A good teacher is always a good storyteller. He should start the topic with a story and should gradually enter into the topic without the knowledge of the students and at the end of the session, only students should know that the teacher covered the relevant topics.

Students should feel that they entered into a theatre where they forget their real world problems the moment they enter the classroom. All that depends on the skills and abilities being displayed by the teacher.

A teacher may start the class with an interesting anecdote, or day to day happening report or a newspaper report or something sensational and emotional everyday so as to draw the attention of their students.

A teacher can also start delivering lecture by role playing, or by referring an interesting case studies or by his own personal experience and with his industrial insights so as to bring the student to the real life from the real life.

He can also throw the topic for open discussion and get their views or opinions or comments related to the topic. By this the teacher is able to unearth the hidden talents lying the in the subconscious minds of their students. It is like brainstorming or it encourages the students to think innovatively, imaginatively and it ignites their minds. It is apt to quote Chinese proverb in this context, “Tell me and I’ll forget, show me and I may remember, involve me and I will understand”.

A good teacher always explains the concepts and fundamentals in depth as it serves as a strong infrastructure (foundation) over which they can build their superstructure.

Body language of the teacher must always complement with his oral language as any inconsistency between body language and oral language can create doubts in the minds of the students. Body language contributes 93% of communication while the oral language contributes 7% of the communication. The combination of both is the complete communication. Although men can talk many things orally but his body language always speaks his sincerity and integrity. The teacher must best make use of his body language up to the hilt and, if required, he has to act in order to reach his students. Gail Godwin rightly said, "Good teaching is one-fourth preparation and three-fourth pure theatre”.

A good teacher is a great democrat and he always encourages students in participation of discussion on the subject to generally different dimensional thinking, apart from encouraging out-of-the box thinking and unconventional and uncharted path. A great teacher should be totally free from doubts. He should be highly confident and comfortable while teaching.

A good teacher is an effective and efficient communicator and makes the complex things simple with his easy and straight teaching tools. He tickles the students and enhances their creativity and innovation. If any student raises any doubts, then the teacher must ask any other person in the class to clarify the same and if it is not clarified he must accept the ball into his court and must clarify through simple methods. By this, the teacher provides an opportunity to other students to come out with their way of answering the questions.

A good teacher blows away, if any myths in the minds of their students and he should encourage and challenge them to touch their upper limits. If stars are their goals then sky is their limit. A good teacher must be like a doctor with a healthy and positive mindset. Because when a patient goes to a doctor for taking medicine by injection, the patient will have fear to get the same executed. Then the doctor says nothing would happen and engages the patient in a friendly chat and offers medicine by injection. Similarly if any topic is tough, the teacher must infuse confidence in his students by saying it as simple and then should explain the concepts clearly with clarity of thought.

Teaching is nothing but a novel method of presenting the subject. One should know clearly that all successful teachers may not be knowledgeable teachers and all knowledge teachers may not be successful teachers. It is aptly said, “The essence of education is not what is poured in a student’s mind but what is planted”.

A good teacher should be a great learner and he should be fully prepared on the topic by referring various books and then only he should enter the class as Joseph Joubert correctly said, “To teach is to learn twice”.

A good teacher should not only know ‘How to teach?’ but also should
know ‘How to learn?’ Because the way he learns and the same way he can teach with wider applications and implications. To put it in the words of John Carolus S.J, “We think too much about effective methods of teaching and not enough about effective methods of learning”.

If necessary a good teacher must carry audio, visual material, newspaper cuttings, to the class to experiment and experience the topic lively. The teacher should not be static on the dais like a statue; he must move his body from place to place to make the teaching natural and pleasant. In the middle of the teaching he should ask relevant questions about the topic to keep students agile, active, awake and alert in the class. Smile, as and when it is essential to put the students at ease.

He must link the topic from previous class to the present and to the future classes and there should be effective interconnectivity of the topic so those students can feel that the subject is being taught with a natural flow. He should also ask questions from the previously discussed classes so that the students will prepare seriously at home to avoid ambiguity and confusion in the class. If necessary, tests have to be conducted periodically to ensure that the students study seriously at home and also to overcome from examination fever.

When the author took up teaching profession about Management Science (M S) subject in an engineering college initially, the students did not understand when he introduced his name along with his defense background. A student got up and asked seriously, “Sir, I did not hear your name properly and would you mind repeating your name?” To that, the author further questioned the student to name the subject he was teaching. Then the student quickly replied as Management Science. Then the author asked the student to name the subject in abbreviated format. Then the student replied as M S. Then the author further asked the student to add RAO as suffix to M.S. and then the student felt greatly happy to remember the author’s name as Prof. M.S.RAO. This is also a way of teaching by questioning and involving in conversation and it is popularly called as Socratic method of teaching.

While teaching apart from the academic curriculum the students should be taught about the practical application of the concepts taught and whenever something is related their career, it must be focussed firmly and finely. It is advisable and desirable to reconfirm from the students during the course of teaching by using sentences like ‘Is that OK? Is it clear ?, Do you understand ?, Is it alright ? And so on. It is a fine technique to keep the students totally immersed in class.

Conducting regular quiz programs or topic related quiz activities encourage the students to involve actively and briskly even at home related to syllabus studies. It is far better by gifting the bright students based on score they get during such programs. Or else, providing ‘appreciation letters’ or ‘participation certificates’ for such activities will also motivate them to stay to the academic syllabus.

Teacher should respect their students and should hold them to high standards. Teacher should not snub students if they ask for any clarifications during the session. And it is essential to conduct question and answer session at the end of each session by catering some time. It is like taking stock of the session and often it serves as an effective feedback. A teacher can also assess and gauge himself how effectively he taught. A teacher should always stay focussed on the subject and should never lose sight of. If warranted, it is necessary to repeat the things to students.

A good teacher must step into the shoes of the students and must empathize. Offer model answers as guide and it helps them to address the examinations effectively. Preparation of various model answers is a must to have a feel of the examination. Teacher should adopt multiple methodologies and strategies while teaching. It is like ‘end’ is one where as the ‘means’ are many.


It is the noblest profession and there is a great degree of sanctity attached to it. Most of the people take up this profession by chance not by choice. The qualified people when they pass out from their institutions look for jobs immediately and a few utilize this profession as a stopgap one. If one likes this, then one can get attached and attracted to this profession forever or else, can make a switch over to other professions.

In fact, there is a sense of thrill while teaching to the students because shaping of students’ future only depends in the hands of the teacher. And a teacher can derive great sense of job satisfaction and sense of achievement when he learns that his students achieved miracles in their career. A great teacher takes pride in molding the future of their students.

This profession brings out both creativity and innovation to the fore both from the teacher side and from the students’ side. Consciously or unconsciously many hidden things unfold during the process of teaching. Rather one can tap one’s own natural and creative things spontaneously.

A teacher can feel like a commander till the completion of the class as the total students obey the teacher with discipline and dedication. And none can enter the class without his permission thereby having full command and control over the students.

A teacher can also feel like a priest/pastor as the schools are treated as temples of learning thereby attracting a great amount of dignity.

A teacher can learn his best from his students by posing various questions to the students thereby getting multiple shades of views, opinions, ideas and comments on each topic. This will help grow richer in knowledge and stature.

A teacher can work at best by experimenting various things in the class room and rather each class can be treated as a workshop. He can adopt trial and error method for each experiment and if he passes in the trial he can adopt the same strategies/tools in other classes. And if he fails, he can reject the same. In a nutshell, a teacher can compare his classroom like laboratory for conducting many experiments.

In this profession an individual can wear many masks, like that of a Hollywood stars who plays different roles in their film career.

In this profession, one enjoys maximum number of holidays and as a result wok-life balance can be maintained effectively. One can pursue writing books during holidays and leisure or can go for part time employment during long vacation. And if possible, one can involve in experimentation of what he learnt and taught in the classrooms in the outside world thereby generating his own case studies.

Even if a teacher does not have sense of humor, the same can be cultivated by moving friendly with their students. One can feel young both in mind and heart as they move with students freely and frankly. By being with young people a teacher thinks very young all the time and he can work with higher levels of energy and enthusiasm.

Every profession is getting highly complex and complicated due to the growing technologies and thus leading to higher levels of stress and burnout. In this profession, there is a least possibility of getting burnt out. Even if one gets stressed out he can regain and recoup very easily due to the availability of more leisure time.

As long as the teacher commands subject he will command respect from their students, from their superiors and it helps and ensures job security. So why not to choose this noble profession as a wonderful career option?


A teacher should have passion, persuasive skills, presentation skills, involvement, application of knowledge, role-playing and should base on trial and error methods of teaching.

An average teacher teaches the topic, a good teacher converts dull students into bright students and a great teacher creates great students who in turn excel in their area of chosen line. And such great teachers become teaching legends. Alexander the Great quoted, “I am indebted to my father for living, but to my teacher for living well”. The great teachers across the globe are Aristotle, Galileo, Isaac Newton, Pythogorous and so on to name a few. They are great because they contributed their best in their life times. In India, every year on 5th September, Teachers Day is celebrated and across the world the Teachers Day is celebrated on 5th October. It indicates the importance and significance attached to teachers and to the teaching profession. “Teaching is the profession that teaches all the other professions”, someone suitably said.


Think of teachers those who made an impact in your mind right from your childhood. And find out the reasons what made them so memorable in your minds. Recollect the tools, techniques, strategies, methodologies etc., which made prints in your mind. Analyze one by one slowly and list out. Then gradually apply them in your practical life whenever you get an opportunity. Teaching must ignite passion in the minds of the students. Inculcate and cultivate the out of the box thinking, unconventional thinking and travel the uncharted path and leave a mark behind. Always think, dream and sleep over the novel methods of teaching. With interest and by regular interactions with students, one can evolve one’s own methods of teaching. Read and reread the books of great teachers across the world and find out what made them stand distinct from the rest. Visit Webster related to teaching you will get bundle of knowledge and information.

Look at your strengths and weaknesses and always try to overcome your weaknesses by regular practice and training. Take active part in various seminars, workshops and training programs and learn. Especially in such wonderful workshops, the birds of the same feather flock together. And that is yet again a wonderful platform to interact and learn many things.

Regularly take feedback from your students and always find out the key areas that needs for improvement and betterment. Students are the source of strength for any teacher. The student’s mindsets’ are not controlled and conditioned. They are young, fresh and energetic with virgin minds. They are far away from preconceived notions and views. Their views and comments are authentic and genuine.

The feedback covers many areas such as body language, communication skills, relevance, examples, data, novelty and so on. Every area must be given to a point of scale and it can be measured accordingly periodically.

Similarly take feedback from your subordinates, peers, and superiors and discuss with them regularly the ways and means of bringing out the best out of you and also out of your students.


Plutarch quoted, “The mind is not a vessel to be filled but a fire to be ignited”. Usage of blackboard is essential as it provides effective visual effects and the human brain remembers more when presented in visual rather than audio effects. In listening there is a popular term ‘Time Lag’. It is the gap between what a teacher can speak and what a student can listen. Human brain is a vast powerful and wonderful device and it accepts 500 words per minute where as the speaker can deliver between 125 to 150 words per minute on an average. This gap between the speaker and the listener is termed as ‘Time Lag’.

Apart from visual and audio effects the teacher should question the students related to the topic in the middle of the teaching. As a result, the student’s mind does not wander during the time lag and student summarizes what the teacher has taught and keeps totally away from daydreaming in the class. By this process, the student is encouraged to involve effectively and also to keep his mind with in the class but certainly not out of the class.

The teacher must touch upon the topic systematically, chronologically by point wise by arousing curiosity from the beginning to the end of the session. By referring relevant case studies or personal examples or anecdotes a teacher can enhance the students’ mental presence in the class. The teacher should be flexible in his body language and move around the dais/podium with a friendly smile and encourage the students’ participation. The author interconnects and applies all the tools and techniques in order to make the teaching process a pleasant and memorable one.


According to Hindu philosophy, the Mother is the first supreme (Matrudevo Bhava), the Father is the second supreme ( Pitrudevo Bhava ) and theTeacher is the third supreme ( Acharyadevo Bhava ). The teacher is accorded one of the highest statuses and which is indeed unquestionable.

Teachers are not born, but with practice, they can be made. The great teachers are not born in the minds of their students but they are born in the hearts of their students. And the greatest teachers are born in the hearts of the great teachers.